Myth are created because of not understanding of physical essence of what is going on processes and phenomena in nature. Bright example of that is the most interesting science “Ancient mythology of different people of the world”. We will try to analyze modern astronomic myths based on hard facts and not retreating from the laws of classic physics. The main myth in astronomy comes from genius laws of gravitation of
Everybody knows them, I will not repeat them According to this law two adjoining bodies must be attracted with infinitely large force because attractive power is inversely proportional to the square of distance Do we really watch it in Nature? In Nature bodies can adjoin and calmly divide.If it is a resilient blow they exchange their speeds and then everyone goes further its own way.
It concerns the comet of Churyumov-Gerasimenko discussed by everybody today. According to Newton’s law an absolutely powerful tripping must happen at contiguity of comet with the landing module of “Rozetta” But it didn’t happen. A resilient blow happened and the landing module of “Rozetta” in somewise had to become stronger in order to hold out on the spot of comet. One more evident example: in a state of weightlessness the field of gravitation of Earth is compensated in a spaceship and bodies must attract each other although with small force.
It is also not observed. They behave quite amorphously. The same bodies, appearing in the gravity field, activate, begin to move until they
accept certain mutual steady balanced position. Everybody can remember a boundless amount of such examples in the law of the «World gravitation». It is necessary to change one word. It must be the «Law of world co-operation of matter». As it is generally known the power field is a form of matter existence.
The conduct of metallic objects in the magnetic field is an evident example how material bodies activate in the power field.
They are really attracted and try to create a single body there.
The conclusion: material bodies in the power field of Universe activate and co-operate with the force determined by Newton’s law. Moving of separate bodies goes on up to setting up of the stable balanced state of the whole system. These processes are studied by science under the name of «Figures of Equilibrium». The power field exists as given, as well as gazo-dustborne matter of Universe. Power field of Universe is that the same dark matter which is unsuccessfully searched by the most persistent researchers. Any deviations from a steady dynamic balance are certainly corrected the power field. We can compare it with Goddess Nemesis from ancient Greek mythology who watches after an order in Universe, corrects failings and punishes those who are guilty.
Artificial violation of the balanced system comes to a catastrophe. Now on a background euphoria of successful experiment with the comet of Churyumov-Gerasimenko, one can hear glad reports, that it is possible to rescue Earth from the undesirable meeting with a comet, for example, to blow it up. It must not be done. Remainders will not be dispersed in Universe. They will create a new balanced system. Thus the balanced co-operation of comet matter will be violated with the Solar system, and the Earth will get a lot of «Chelyabinskiy phenomena».
As it is generally known, there are meteor streams in nature. Probably those are remainders of some space catastrophies. However, they did not flow away in space, but they continue to remain the single balanced system as meteor streams.
Generally speaking in the end, collision with a comet or asteroid practically is improbable, due to great order in space. I’ll be reminded about the fate of unhappy dinosaurs who were lost because of collision with a comet or asteroid. But nobody proved that they had perished simultaneously and why other flora and fauna happily survived.
The experiment itself is a remarkable success of modern technology and celestial mechanics. But there will be no any astronomic news from it. It is known for a long time that a comet is soldered by ice. It is unknown from where the ice appeared on a comet. It is not enough to have hydrogen and oxygen for its creation. Additional energy as a power of pressure is required. Thus the water in the bowels of the earth of our planet appears. But nobody knows how it happens at a comet. And building material in Universe is the same for both a comet and for the Earth.
Recently I have read unexpected turn of events in a newspaper. Water on Earth was brought by comets. "They rushed to the Earth and filled all its oceans with water".
It`s quite absurd of course, wildness, it sounds as if all other science dealing with the Earth does not exist, but it is adopted for consideration.
This is the lack of modern school astronomic education of excelled “smart” journalists who are ready to think up cock-and-bull stories for the sake of sensation.
Myth about the mutual interattraction of material bodies, bears the next myth about - existence of black hole. A certain super massive body attracts a matter to itself endlessly. Every apologist of the theory of "black holes" interprets what happens then because of his mathematical and mental capabilities. Even if such super massive body appears, it will create the balanced system with other bodies around itself but its center, will be anywhere, not only in its center. The example is our Solar system, where the mass of the Sun is incomparably higher of all its components and according to Newton’s law it must attract everything on itself.
Nevertheless, there is certain balanced system of elliptical shape, Solar by name, as it is supposed, with the main focus not in the center of the Sun, but at some distance from it. This circumstance gives an opportunity to some especially concerned by "black holes", to assert that there is a black hole in the center of the Sun, and it will drag in all of us soon.
About hundred found objects, suspected to be "black holes" are nothing but the centers of the small dissipated accumulations.
The same thing is with the center of galaxy, where there is allegedly a "black hole".
It is supposed, to retain a galaxy, in the observed position the unbelievable massive "black hole" in its center must exist.
All works on position of finding of material body, its galactic coordinates and elements of their elliptic orbits are incredibly
difficult both for observations and for mathematical calculations, and it’s a pity, that they are used to horrify innocent citizens of the planet, who read popular books in astronomy.
One more myth “Math is the Queer of all Sciences” played a certain role in the history of "black holes". Nobody argues, it is impossible to overestimate the value of mathematics in science. But it is necessary to face the truth that there hasn’t been a case yet that mathematics itself did any discovery in Natural Sciences. Besides it is necessary to remember that rulers do nothing themselves, subjects work for them.
Modern tendency in science –is the creation of mathematical models, it supposes it is enough to create certain mathematical framework and let the observers fill it, search proof for it. And if they find nothing it is worse for observers because it is impossible to argue with equation. Arguing is useless, if to know what should be laid in initial data. This is the way to nowhere. Actually it is the history of "black hole". Young Ñhandrasekar , a great fan of mathematics making a voyage from India to England, came to conclusion, that a "black hole" must turn out in the process of star evolution.
In reality there is only a nucleus of former star, a white dwarf pige man star by name and there is no black hole at all. The shell of nucleus and the strongest magnetic field restrain its dissolution in space up to certain period of time. But, as a result, the nature comes to itself, it is formed from ash and returns to ash i.e. gas-dusted cloud.
At first nobody supported the idea of Ñhandrasekar , but the grain was thrown about. The enthusiasts began to search, and of course, they succeeded to find, the group of stars above-ground together, but not having a visible center of attraction. They came to conclusion – there is a "black hole" there. Then it was like in music according to the plan, a fashionable idea was caught up. Now it is considered that the existence of "black holes" is proved and that’s all. Without supervisions and experiments no mathematics even research one will help.
Einstein made sure himself , trying to create the unique mathematical model of Universe all his life.
This new trend – modeling, brought to some the most inadmissible discoveries in Astrophysics (holes, burrows, strings) as a result the astronomy was taken away from secondary schools.
Let’s take Odessa as an example, a wonderful planetarium worked, here on the initiative of V.P. Tsesewich and N.B. Divari in a "totalitarian epoch, it was destroyed by barbarians on "epoch of democracy".And now instead of building modern planetarium they build Parish School.
One can read the original given below according to the reference.
The next myth that deals the final blow on Astrophysics is ”The Universe expands (The Big Bang Theory) “.Every baby knows that Universe expands. A desperate attempt to disprove this absurdity was adopted in the open letter to the scientific association. It was signed in 2004 by more than 1000 scientists all over the world astrophysics, physics, mathematicians philosophers are among them. But nothing changed. The idea is severely protected.
An original can be looked on the below brought reference over.
One open letter to the scientific association cosmologystatement.org
(It is published in the magazine of New Scientist, on May, 22 2004)
This letter was initially signed by 400 persons. At the head of the list there is Halton Arp, Max-Plank Institute of Astrophysics of Mechanics. Then 700 scientists more from CIS countries signed it. It is pleasure to know about existence of such amount of adequate intellectual scientists and probably the quantity will come into quality at last.
As for me I am ready to put my signature hundreds of times either.
But, there will be no use of it, because the coordinators who finance the idea of BÂ and interested persons, react very simply on any criticism they notice no objections. Even all original works of Cecilia Payne – Gaposchkina, were cleaned out from the internet. But that was she who gave clear explanation that a redshirt in the spectrums of galaxies has no relation to speed , even because there are spectrums of absorption. It was done in 1953.
Such refined medieval insidiousness is " the voice of one crying in the wilderness".
Fred Hole named the senseless idea of pastor Lemaître the "Big Bang. This humorous idea was caught up by another humorist ( he was born in Odesa, the city of humor) George Gamov. His first reaction on a redshirt was absolutely right, it is absorption. I can’t understand what compelled him to catch up this game of mind. It is only known , that Gamov, as a mathematician had a very good preparation. He studied in Odesa in a mathematical class that Glushko and Maksutov studied together with him. Thus he jauntily counted , how many years the Universe cools off and disperses but truly speaking the initial point and disperse points are unknown. The senseless the fantasy, more people trust it. Nobody tried to check these calculations and now everybody, as a mantra, repeats fairy-tales about an explosion and expansion of the Universe. This "joke" became very expensive to astrophysics.
Unfortunately, the weightiest arguments, which prove the presence of interstellar and intergalactic absorption, the value of energy and closeness of this space (actually that they now call it black energy and black matter) which provides possibility of infinitely long existence of white dwarfs without an absurd compression, are absent in the letter. Compression cannot proceed infinitely, because on the laws of atomic physics, forces of compression transfer into forces of repulsion. But they also do not bring to explosion of these objects, because, this process is restrained with powerful magnetic field of white dwarfs and very dense shell. These are the data of observation, they are well known spectroscopists.
It is rather interesting to examine the works of signers, to understand, what is their creed and what arguments are given in the use of Big Bang’s alternative. For example, let’s analyze the works of Yuriy Baryshev (the Astronomic Institute, the Saint Petersburg State University ( Russia). One can see an interesting thing. Only one argument comes from it ‘ BÂ is a complete nonsense and in general the Universe is created by God without any explosions’.
Probably for one thing to search the God’s particle day and night by great companies. But resources spent for it could be used for 10 years of scientific work.
As they say in Odessa one came to Shneerson’s dancing school, that is one step forward and two steps backward.
Astrophysics will further lie in ruins with such approach we watch it now. Why is science needed at all, if everything is created and managed by providence? Probably for one thing: to search the God’s particle day and night by great companies. But resources spent for it could be used for 10 years of scientific work.
The level of astronomic knowledge of the average citizen of the planet, is the extremely low because Astronomy was actually excluded from school programmes.
But life puts very real questions and Astronomy must answer them.
Everybody is surprised, what happens with the Sun? Why is it so active while its maximum is weak enough? The reason is that the
Solar atmosphere on the surface and depth is dissimilar heterogeneous. But nobody wanted and does not want to notice and investigate it. The model of the Sun atmosphere takes into consideration only smooth changes of physical parameters with a depth. In reality everything is more complicated, but it is another thing. Cecilia Payne – Gaposchkina warned at early fiftieth about the Sun’s heterogeneity of atmosphere. It is possible that she was not alone, but reviewers diligently rejected all works for publication where there was a drop of fresh idea.
For example, storm clouds, tsunami and other terrestrial cataclysms, are the results of nascent heterogeneities of terrestrial atmosphere.
And the Chelyabinsk "phenomenon"!
The information about close to the Earth of asteroid passing appeared a year before that event. It has passed between the Earth and geostationary sputniks, i.e. it had got into magnetic belts of the Earth which generally cover the Earth from "new-comers". But what happened, and reached Chelyabinsk? Inhabitants dragged in 500 kg of cobbles already, allegedly from a "new-comer" and even in the lake they found some 5 tons cobble. But such burning hot block simply left nothing from the lake. From the professional point of view everything is explainable, that was the hunch of ice that simply dissolved in this lake but why it did not explode in an atmosphere, and in general from where it appeared up to now nothing intelligible is officially declared. Glasses in windows were broken because of a shock wave which had to appear at the upcast of supersonic speed, nobody was hit with a cobble.
These are the circumstances the earthmen are suggested to live in. Maybe it is better to know about it from school courses and to understand what is going to be?
Certainly, it is interesting to analyze the way of thinking of all signers and to collect all alternative BÂ arguments.
Unfortunately, a basic criterion according to which redshirt in the spectrums of galaxies is impossible to classify as speed of running approach of galaxies is absent in this letter. To understand the problem one needs some base of knowledge in photometry and spectrophotometry.
Photometry is fixing the level radiation on photo emulsion or electronic stores of object through a filter with the well-known stripes of absorption. The light energy, that passed through a filter, was not needed to it and appeared on the receiver of radiation. It consequently corresponds to characteristic of this filter, i.e. to the absorptive environment. The shots of galaxies, star clouds and other objects are coloured and obtained in such way with the help of Habble’s telescope.
Let’s take into consideration that all galaxies of different colours from blue to red, are mostly many-coloured. It is important to understand the next argument. In principle, it is comparatively new information not known to Gamov at his time. At his time it was considered that all galaxies had approximately identical of yellow -green colour because the most stars in Universe were like that and on the base of it was even confirmed that the Universe was old. But extra-atmospheric telescopes showed a completely other picture, and it is high time to look over old conceptions. Only the International Astronomic Union, is able to solve this task as well as the manual in astrospectroskopy publication.
The most informative method of research in astrophysics is a spectrophotometry. A light stream is being passed through a prism or diffraction grate to decompose it on compound components. It is well well-known to everybody a rainbow, that is the so-called continuous sunny spectrum. Depending on what wave-length a maximum stream is on, the temperature of light source is determined. In case of the Sun a maximum is on a yellow-green area. On the base of it we consider, that the temperature of the Sun, exactly its external areas is about 6000Ê. Kelvin’s temperature scale is used in astronomy. If the source of radiation is discrete, that it is contains some certain lengths of waves, then the spectrum of radiation turns out to be, id est, the bright lines of radiation exactly will be visible on a dark background. According to intensity of discrete lines one can judge about chemical quantitative and qualitative composition of the source.
If the source is being moved, all spectrum is displaced into red or blue part of the spectrum depending on its speed and direction of motion - to the observer or from him. Displacement is determined relatively to the spectrum, received from a "standard", resting laboratory source of light. Comparison of position on the dispersible line of radiation line of one wave-length on two spectrums, gives the possibility to get the speed of the source. For the purity of experiment the comparison must be done relatively laboratory standard exclusively. It is Doppler’s effect with the index of radiation of D (rad).
This type of spectrum is well studied, is used in lab tests and is studied in school course of physics.
We don’t often meet such spectrums in astronomy, these are the so-called emission spectrums.
Basic mass of spectrums in astrophysics is spectrums of absorption. In laboratory terms an absorber is placed between a source and a receiver of radiation, for example, the plate with well-known effective wave-length of absorption. One obtains the continuous spectrum of radiation on the receiver, those lines that were caught by an absorber would be cut off. This is pure power effect. An absorber takes only what it needs. What has passed through an absorber is its characteristic. Id est, the spectrum of absorption has no relation towards the source of radiation, it is the characteristic of absorber. The more the difference of temperatures of the source and the absorber, the more intensive are the lines of absorption. This spectrum will be obligatory displaced into a red side, and by no means into a blue one, because an absorber breaks the velocity of light.
It is the effect of Doppler too, but for the absorber -D (abs). It is quite different description than D (rad). But the effect of displacement of lines in a spectrum was discovered by Doppler, that’s why it doesn’t have other names. When researching these spectrums it is very important not to mix up them and not to add properties of one spectrum to another but it actually happened with BÂ Theory – they began to add properties of radiation spectrums to Galaxy spectrums of absorption.
As a result galaxies started to fly with reckless speeds. Einstein had to enter the concept of relativity, in order to explain that these are not actual speeds, but relative ones.
I accentuate again, that displacement must be determined in relation to the spectrum of radiation of laboratory standard, but not in relation to the spectrum of absorption of the Sun. Such history happened with the respected researcher Vesto Melvin Slipher;. He managed not to notice that spectrum of galaxy of Andromeda’s Nebula is a spectrum of absorption, id est it is not speed.
Comparing with the spectrum of the Sun, it is necessary to take into consideration displacement in its spectrum. Certainly, closeness of Solar atmosphere is far more of closeness of intergalactic environment. That’s why in he got displacement into a blue side and came to conclusion, that Nebula of Andromeda flew to us to meet, we would clash soon. In short he made a "genius" discovery. Frankly speaking , to his honour, he mistrusted, that result but the myth lives. This idea was caught up by certain tale-teller Nik. Gorkaviy, he wrote a fairy-tale for children, without absolute understanding, what he talks about. And there are a lot of such examples in popular literature.
It is possible to change descriptions of an absorber and in laboratory terms to define the dependence of displacement of spectrum on the closeness of an absorber. The method of absorptive spectroscopy is very convenient for laboratory researches. It is not necessary to burn down a sample. To be translucented is quite enough , if it is allowed by the terms of experiment, and it is possible to get quantitative and qualitative descriptions of the sample.
It is high time to come back to galaxies.
Spectrums of galaxies are always spectrums of absorption with the rare exception, when an emission spectrum is laid on it which got on a ray sight of interstellar cloud. All spectrums of galaxies have the type of the Sun spectrum , id est about 6000Ê and are conditionally designated as a spectral class of G, although the colours of galaxies have great variety. The spectrums of galaxies are only different in size of redshirt. The farther galaxy is, the stronger is an absorptive layer of intergalactic environments and displacement on a spectrum is greater. And that’s all. No speeds and no running approaches with all current circumstances. Every galaxy moves on its orbit in general balanced system of the unique power field of the Universe. The temperature of interstellar environment is determined automatically according to the spectrums of galaxies as 6000Ê. It is the same data of nature as interstellar environment and power field. This just is a dark energy of the Universe and many wonders are fabricated concerning it.
The conclusion is the Universe is a gazo-dustborne matter with the temperature of 6000Ê being placed in the homogeneous power field.
All the rest one observes in the Universe, is a derivante of it. Such a phenomenon like ray emission gets into derivatives as well. It is a transmission of energy through a vacuum, due to what the Solar energy comes to the Earth. For some reason in our domestic thermoses, though vacuum is poor, but it restrains this process, but Solar energy is restrained with nothing. I think that everything is clear now. Firstly, there is no any vacuum, and, secondly, an interstellar environment has the same temperature, as well as the upper stratum of sunny atmosphere. Nothing prevents its energy from coming to the Earth without obstacles, id est it is an ordinary convention. According to the same reason there is a possibility to watch Cepheid’s in other galaxies. Cepheid’s are the supergiants of the Solar spectral type. They give us the possibility to get much useful information about composition and structure of the Universe.
One more acute problem is connected with the pulsation of Cepheids. Observations tell us that Cepheids periodically change their brightness.
The calculations of radius of Cepheid show on photometric supervisions, that in a minimum of brightness a radius is greater anymore, and in a maximum it is less. The simpliest conclusion is that there is a radial pulsation at Cepheid. There is a profound methodology of determinations of rate of movement of stratum layers according to the effect of Doppler. In spite of some misunderstanding the theory in a whole is adopted by researchers. Everything could be ok, if it were not for the spectrums. And all spectrums of Cepheids are the spectrums of absorption both in maximum and in minimum. Id est displacement of their lines is related to the change of closeness of upper absorptive stratum.
Probably the radius of active zone is less than the radius of the whole atmosphere, and it is fixed with photometric observations. We make a conclusion, that there is only a pulsation of temperature in the atmospheres of Cepheid.
In some cases emission lines appear on the spectrums of Cepheids in a maximum of brightness. It is possible if in a maximum of brightness there is the periodic putting out of hot matter from under convective zone, id est flash. This active zone goes outside of an absorptive layer and its spectrum of radiation is laid on the spectrum of absorption. According to these lines, if one succeeds to identify them, it will be possible to determine speeds of putting out matter.
In order to avoid mysteries and myths first of all it is necessary to give well defined determinations to observed facts.
Metallic stars appeared as a result of that star atmospheres are not homogeneous and the lines of absorption in their spectrums can be increased or weakened anomalously. If not to take into consideration that these are spectrums of absorption, they began to add them properties of spectrums of radiation and call the stars with abundance and with lack of metals. Now Physicists - theorists offer different theories how hydrogen burns down to the state of iron in atmospheres and then with certain magic way it turns into hydrogen.
Atomic chemical composition of stars does not change in the process of life. Burning of carbon adds the molecule of oxide of carbon and methane. It was proved by Cecilia Payne – Gaposchkina on the base of observation of 3000000 spectrums of stars and galaxies. Such a scientific exploit will be never repeated by anybody, that’s why her result should be adopted when researching the structure of Universe.
Conclusion. The Universe is a gazo-dustborne matter in the homogeneous power field probably containing, microorganisms in some certain laid-up state, with the temperature about 6000Ê.
While preserving microorganisms throw away all not vitally important details and, mainly, they squeeze out from themselves the molecules of water. They come back to life in suitable terms, they do it very carefully and not at once. Reverse experiment on the survival of microorganisms in space, if to send them from the Earth, should be prepared very carefully, they are preliminary needed to get an opportunity to acclimatize in an aggressive environment.
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